Tuesday, January 23, 2018

Honey is a Natural Antioxidant Medicinal Agent

Honey as a Potential Natural Antioxidant Medicine: An Insight into Its Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 8367846, 19 pages

Honey clasps several medicinal and health effects as a natural food supplement. It has been established as a potential therapeutic antioxidant agent for various biodiverse ailments. Data report that it exhibits strong wound healing, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, and antidiabetic effects. It also retains immunomodulatory, estrogenic regulatory, antimutagenic, anticancer, and numerous other vigor effects. Data also show that honey, as a conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant to abate many of the diseases directly or indirectly associated with oxidative stress.

In this review, these wholesome effects have been thoroughly reviewed to underscore the mode of action of honey exploring various possible mechanisms. Evidence-based research intends that honey acts through a modulatory road of multiple signaling pathways and molecular targets. This road contemplates through various pathways such as induction of caspases in apoptosis; stimulation of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ, IFNGR1, and p53; inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest; inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation, IL-1, IL-10, COX-2, and LOXs; and modulation of other diverse targets.

The review highlights the research done as well as the apertures to be investigated. The literature suggests that honey administered alone or as adjuvant therapy might be a potential natural antioxidant medicinal agent warranting further experimental and clinical research.

Monday, January 22, 2018

Honey May Help Treat Diarrhea

Role of Honey in Topical and Systemic Bacterial Infections 

Hussain Muhammad Barkaat. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. January 2018, 24(1): 15-24

Background: The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has made it more difficult and expensive to treat infections. Honey is getting worldwide attention as a topical therapeutic agent for wound infections and potential future candidate for systemic infections.

Objectives: The purpose of this review was to summarise different antibacterial bio-active compounds in honey, their synergistic interaction and their clinical implications in topical and systemic infections. In addition, contemporary testing methods for evaluating peroxide and non-peroxide antibacterial activity of honey were also critically appraised.

Design: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Pub Med, reference lists and databases were used to review the literature.

Results: Honey contains several unique antibacterial components. These components are believed to act on diverse bacterial targets, are broad spectrum, operate synergistically, prevent biofilm formation, and decrease production of virulence factors. Moreover, honey has the ability to block bacterial communication (quorum sensing), and therefore, it is unlikely that bacteria develop resistance against honey. Bacterial resistance against honey has not been documented so far. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey only targets pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the growth of normal gastrointestinal flora when taken orally. It also contains prebiotics, probiotics, and zinc and enhances the growth of beneficial gut flora. The presence of such plethora of antibacterial properties in one product makes it a promising candidate not only in wound infections but also in systemic and particularly for gastrointestinal infections. Agar diffusion assay, being used for evaluating antibacterial activity of honey, is not the most appropriate and sensitive assay as it only detects non-peroxide activity when present at a higher level. Therefore, there is a need to develop more sensitive techniques that may be capable of detecting and evaluating different important components in honey as well as their synergistic interaction.

Conclusions: Keeping in view the current guidelines for treatment of diarrhea, honey is considered one of the potential candidates for treatment of diarrhea because it contains a natural combination of probiotics, prebiotics, and zinc. Therefore, it would be worthwhile if such a combination is tested in RCTs for treatment of diarrhea.

Sunday, January 21, 2018

Royal Jelly May Help Treat Breast Cancer


The effect of royal jelly on the growth of breast cancer in mice

Oncol Lett. 2017 Dec;14(6):7615-7621

Due to various pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties, royal jelly (RJ) has been widely consumed in daily diets in numerous countries.

In the present study, the effect of RJ on 4T1-bearing mice was investigated. The study was performed by feeding 4T1-bearing mice with RJ using either the prophylactic-therapeutic (PTRJ) or therapeutic (TRJ) method. The experimental results for the PTRJ group demonstrated that the weight of tumor was significantly reduced (RJ 0.5 and 1.5 g/kg); and in the serum, the levels of interleukin (IL)-2 (RJ 0.5 and 1.5 g/kg), interferon (IFN)-α, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were significantly elevated, but the concentrations of IL-4 (RJ 0.5 and 1.5 g/kg) and IL-10 (RJ 1.0 g/kg) were significantly decreased. In addition, the activities of T-AOC and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly improved in the liver, whereas in the kidney, the activities of T-AOC and GR were significantly increased only under the dose of 0.5 g/kg. For the TRJ group, the antitumor effect of RJ was not significant; the change in IL-2, IFN-α, SOD and T-AOC levels in the serum, and the change in T-AOC and GR in liver were similar to those observed in the PTRJ groups.

RJ treatment was demonstrated to reduce the development of breast tumor in mice, and simultaneously improve the antioxidant capacity of the serum, liver and kidney, particularly using the prophylactic-therapeutic method.

These results corroborated the efficacy of RJ supplementation in diets. The results of the present study suggest that the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of RJ serve an important role on antitumor growth.

Saturday, January 20, 2018

Manuka Honey Disrupts Biofilm Formation on Gallstones

In vitro Salmonella typhi biofilm formation on gallstones and its disruption by Manuka honey

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2018 Jan;31(1):129-135.

Biofilm is a complex community of single or different types of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa) attached to a surface and stick to each other through production of extracellular matrix. Salmonella typhi forms biofilm on cholesterol gallstones resulting in carrier state. Once formed, biofilm is difficult to treat.

To date cholecystectomy is the only cure for this condition. Manuka honey is known to have tremendous antibiofilm activity against various organisms. S. typhi biofilm was grown in vitro on clinical samples of human cholesterol gallstones by Gallstone tube assay method for 12 days. Biofilm mass was quantified on day 1, 5, 7, 9 and 12 by crystal violet assay and was also examined by scanning electron microscope. Three concentrations w/v of Manuka honey (40%, 60% and 80%) were used, each one at 24, 48 and 72 hours. The most effective concentration (80% w/v) was repeated on two sets of gallstones. Biofilm mass was re quantified by crystal violet assay and was examined by scanning electron microscope. S. typhi formed uniform biofilm on cholesterol gallstone surface. The optical density measurements exhibited a rising pattern with time thereby indicating an increase in biofilm mass. It was 0.2 on day 1 and 0.9 on day 12.

With 80% w/v Manuka honey, biofilm mass decreased most effectively with 0.5 OD after 72 hours. Biofilm formation by S, typhi on gallstones is surface specific and bile dependant. Either increasing the duration (beyond 72 hours) of the effective concentration (80% w/v) of honey or increasing the concentration (above 80%) of honey for a specific duration (72 hour) may cause complete disruption of the S. typhi biofilm on gallstone. S. typhi forms biofilm on cholesterol gallstones surface in vitro and it can be visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Biofilm mass can be quantified using crystal violet assay.

Among various concentrations 80% Manuka honey for 72 hours is most effective in disrupting S. typhi biofilm on gallstones in vitro as evident from crystal violet assay.

Friday, January 19, 2018

Brazilian Green Propolis Improves Immune Response Against Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (RVVC)

Propolis increases neutrophils response against Candida albicans through the increase of reactive oxygen species

Future Microbiol. 2018 Feb;13:221-230

AIM:

To investigate whether Brazilian green propolis improves the immune response against recurrent form isolate recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) caused by Candida albicans by increasing neutrophil oxidative burst.

MATERIALS & METHODS:

We evaluated oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, microbicidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity in neutrophils previously treated with propolis and activated with different isolates of C. albicans (RVVC), vulvovaginal candidiasis, asymptomatic isolates and the reference strain.

RESULTS:

Propolis significantly increased oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, microbicidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity of neutrophils against different isolates of C. albicans including RVVC isolate that are considered resistant to the microbicidal activity of neutrophils.

CONCLUSION:

Brazilian green propolis may increase neutrophil burst oxidative response to RVVC leading to an efficient removal of C. albicans.

Thursday, January 18, 2018

Eastern Honey Bee Honey Helps Protect Liver

Hepatoprotective Effects of the Honey of Apis cerana Fabricius on Bromobenzene-Induced Liver Damage in Mice

J Food Sci. 2018 Jan 16

Apis cerana honey (honey of Apis cerana Fabricius), widely distributed in the mountain areas of East Asia, has not been studied fully. The hepatoprotective activity of A. cerana honey was evaluated against bromobenzene-induced liver damage in mice.

In high dose, A. cerana honey can significantly alleviate liver injury, as is indicated by the depressed levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (59.13%) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (79.71%), the inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) content (63.30%), the elevated activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (73.12%) and glutathione-Px (57.24%), and the decreased expression of Transforming growth factor β1 (51.83%) induced by bromobenzene (P < 0.05). The quantitative analysis of twelve major constituents (1 to 12) of A. cerana honey was executed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector.

The results indicate that treatment with A. cerana honey can prevent bromobenzene-induced hepatic damage in mice. Polyphenols might be the bioactive substances attributed to its antioxidant properties and intervention of oxidative stress.

Wednesday, January 17, 2018

Bangladesh Sundarbans are Source of Polyphenols and Antioxidants

Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Honeys from the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest of Bangladesh

Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2017 Dec;22(4):335-344

This study evaluated the physicochemical, nutritional, antioxidant, and phenolic properties of ten honey samples from the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh.

The average pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, ash, moisture, hydroxymethyl furfural, titrable acidity, and absorbance were 4.3, 0.38 mS/cm, 187.5 ppm, 0.14%, 17.88%, 4.4 mg/kg, 37.7 meq/kg, and 483 mAU, respectively. In the honeys, the average contents of Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and Na were 95.5, 0.19, 6.4, 302, 39.9, 3.4, and 597 ppm, respectively, whereas Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni were not found.

The average contents of total sugar, protein, lipid, vitamin C, polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins in the honeys were 69.3%, 0.8%, 0.29%, 107.3 mg/kg, 757.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/kg, 43.1 mg chatechin equivalent/kg, and 5.4 mg/kg, respectively. The honeys had strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity.

High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the honey fractions revealed the quantification of six polyphenols namely, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, p-caumeric acid, syringic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, and vanillic acid at 194.98, 330.34, 74.64, 218.97, 49.55, and 118.84 mg/kg, respectively.

Therefore, the honeys in the A.

Tuesday, January 16, 2018

Medical-grade Manuka Honey Helps Treat Oral Mucositis

A Sweet Solution: The Use of Medical-grade Honey on Oral Mucositis in the Pediatric Oncology Patient.

Wounds. 2017 Dec;29(12):E115-E117.

INTRODUCTION:

Pediatric patients develop mucositis when receiving treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation; the most common and sensitive is oral mucositis. Mouth rinses containing antimicrobial, antihistamine, and analgesic medications are the mainstay for pediatric patients; however, patients often refuse these rinses due to the taste or texture. Also, patients under 1 year of age are unable to use these products.

OBJECTIVE:

Herein, the improvement of oral mucositis with standard oral care and additional use of active Leptospermum honey in pediatric oncology patients after chemotherapy is demonstrated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Patients received oral care every 4 hours followed by application of the honey paste 3 times daily. The honey paste was applied with a sponge swab to coat the mouth. Patients either swished and spit or had excess honey suctioned out. At completion of this evaluation, the honey treatment was used in 10 pediatric oncology patients between the ages of 9 months and 17 years.

RESULTS:

The Leptospermum honey paste was easy to apply and was well received by all patients. Healing was observed within 3 days, and patients in all cases reported decreases in pain. Decreased wounds and bleeding were evident in all cases within 5 days.

CONCLUSIONS:

Leptospermum honey paste proved to be effective in all participating patients.

Monday, January 15, 2018

Algerian Propolis May Help Treat Pancreatic Cancer

Algerian Propolis Potentiates Doxorubicin Mediated Anticancer Effect against Human Pancreatic PANC-1 Cancer Cell Line through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis Induction and P-Glycoprotein Inhibition

Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2018 Jan 10

BACKGROUND:

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and lethal cancer, with poor prognosis and high resistant to current chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies and targets are underscored. Propolis has been reported to exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities including anticancer activity.

OBJECTIVE:

This study was carried out to assess the possible efficacy of Algerian propolis on the antitumor effect of doxorubicin on human pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1).

METHODS:

Modifications in cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle progression, Pgp activity and intracellular accumulation of DOX were monitored to study the synergistic effect of Algerian propolis on the antitumor effects of DOX in PANC-1 cell line.

RESULTS:

Both propolis and its combination with doxorubicin inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In the presence of 100 µg/ml of propolis, the IC50 of DOX against PANC-1 cells decreased by 10.9-fold. Propolis combined with DOX increased after 48h, the number of cells in the G0G1 phase with dramatical increase in sub-G1 phase to reach 47% of total cells, corresponding to an increase of senescence or apoptotic state of the cells. Dead cell assay with annexinV/PI staining demonstrated that propolis and propolis-DOX treatment resulted in a remarkable induction of apoptosis as detected by flow cytometry. It was interesting to note that propolis at its 5IC50 was found as the most potent inducer of apoptosis. Our finding revealed that induced apoptosis in our conditions was caspase-3 and caspase-9 dependent. Flow cytometry showed that propolis increased the accumulation of doxorubicin within PANC-1 cells. Moreover, fluorescent intensity detection revealed that propolis remarkably increased the retention of rhodamine-123, 7-fold compared to 3-fold of verapamil, the most effective P-gp inhibitor.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, propolis sensitize pancreatic cancer cells to DOX via enhancing the intracellular retention of DOX due to blocking the efflux activity of P-gp pump, inducing cell cycle arrest and increasing apoptosis, finding that improuve the synergism of antitumor effect of Algerian propolis and DOX in pancreatic cancer cell line. Therefore, Algerian propolis may be an effective agent in a combined treatment with doxorubicin for increased therapeutic efficacy against pancreatic cancer.

Sunday, January 14, 2018

Review of Propolis Use to Treat Dogs


In light of the scarcity of novel therapeutic agents that are effective, the pharmaceutical industry has found a newer source of therapeutic compounds in natural products and herbal medicine to address the current health problems in humans and animals. What is particularly promising about these agents is that they produce fewer side effects and are more cost effective than synthetic compounds. This means greater availability of these treatments particularly for less developed countries who can’t afford expensive treatments. The reduced side effects also mean greater patient tolerance and increased compliance thereby yielding maximal therapeutic effect without negatively impacting on quality of life.

Among the natural products more frequently employed nowadays is propolis, a resin that is routinely collected by bees (Apis mellifera). Propolis contains flavonoids, caffeic acid esters and diterpenic acids, which provide the bactericidal, antiviral and antifungal properties to this product. The use of propolis to address a variety of conditions in small animal species is beginning to play an important role in the currently available treatments. Its use appears to be an effective treatment with no side effects at low cost. This paper reviews the different applications of this compound to treat diseases in dogs.

The novel biomaterials Copazan Herbal Gel with Bee propolis have been designed to be used in veterinary medicine for the wound healing application. In vitro investigations highlight the suitability of this material for a variety of applications in the veterinary medicine in the future.

Saturday, January 13, 2018

Propolis Component Protects Against Brain Injury

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects against photothrombotic cortical ischemic injury in mice

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018 Jan;22(1):101-110

In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis purified from honeybee hives, on photothrombotic cortical ischemic injury in mice. Permanent focal ischemia was achieved in the medial frontal and somatosensory cortices of anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice by irradiation of the skull with cold light laser in combination with systemic administration of rose bengal.

The animals were treated with CAPE (0.5-5 mg/kg, i.p.) twice 1 and 6 h after ischemic insult. CAPE significantly reduced the infarct size as well as the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, hypoxiainducible factor-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-1α, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in the cerebral cortex ipsilateral to the photothrombosis. Moreover, it induced an increase in heme oxygenase-1 immunoreactivity and interleukin-10 expression.

cThese results suggest that CAPE exerts a remarkable neuroprotective effect on ischemic brain injury via its anti-inflammatory properties, thereby providing a benefit to the therapy of cerebral infarction.

Friday, January 12, 2018

Honey Bee Lactic Acid Bacteria Show Probiotic Potential

Probiotic potency of Lactobacillus plantarum KX519413 and KX519414 isolated from Honey bee gut

FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2018 Jan 8

The Indian honey bee-Apis cerana indica, which harbors an abundant and diverse range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in their gut with beneficial effects was used as the source for the isolation of LAB. In the present study, two LAB isolates from honey bee gut were selected primarily based on their phenotypic and selective biochemical characterization, further PCR and identified using 16S rRNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum and were registered in National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) under accession number KX519413 and KX519414.

The probiotic potency of test strains indicated their survivability at acidic pH, bile salts and viability in simulated gastric juice enabling them to withstand gastrointestinal tract conditions. Evaluation of cell surface properties suggested that they possess an important defense mechanism against the pathogen since they are hydrophobic, auto-aggregative and have co-aggregative ability. Further, efficient exopolysaccharide production by them indicate not only their ability to enrich biofilm formation and auto-aggregation, but also enhance bacterial adhesion and colonization on the host intestinal tract.

The present study concluded that L. plantarum from the gut of Apis cerana indica possess probiotic potency, and potential candidates for use as food besides application in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

Thursday, January 11, 2018

Bee Venom Studied for Treatment of High Blood Pressure, Cancer, Arrhythmias

Lobachevsky University researchers study the effects of bee venom on living organisms

Eureka Alert

Despite a centuries-old history of studies of bee venom as a therapeutic agent, this field of research remains quite relevant today, when the use of synthetic drugs is not always effective and has a great number of side effects. In addition to analgesic properties of bee venom that are well known, a number of other useful properties have been established experimentally such as the ability to reduce blood pressure, antiarrhythmic action, radioprotective and antihypoxic effects, as well as antitumor activity.

Bee venom's high polyfunctionality is based on a unique combination of its components, including some proteins with enzymatic properties, highly active peptides (melittin, apamin, the mast-cell-degranulating (MCD) peptide, adolapin, tertiapin, secapin, minimin, cardiopep), and biogenic amines.

Bee venom peptides have an anti-inflammatory effect, both through direct action and indirectly through the modulation of all other regulatory systems. Thus, the pharmacological activity of small doses of melittin is mediated by the activation of a cascade associated with the synthesis of prostaglandins, which are powerful biological regulators. In addition, melittin has some protective properties, which underlies the radioprotective effects of bee venom. Melittin is also credited with antitumor activity. Its anti-inflammatory activity is associated with the action of the MCD-peptide, while adolapin, a component of bee venom, has an analgesic effect.

As they enter the body, bee venom components cause changes in the neurohumoral regulation of body functions not only through the activation of endogenous neuropeptides, but, possibly, as their direct sources.

Researchers of the UNN Institute of Biology and Biomedicine (IBBM) have established as a result of laboratory tests that bee venom and bee products inhibit the growth of malignant tumors, enhance biological activity of the body, and can also be used to treat diabetes mellitus.

Anna Deryugina, Head of the Department of Physiology and Anatomy of the UNN IBBM explains: "Currently, we are continuing the tests of a chemical compound including chitosan, gold nanoparticles and bee venom, in particular, in relation to the treatment of oncological diseases. We have found out that the compound synthesized by our colleagues at the UNN Faculty of Chemistry inhibits the growth of malignant tumors. Our institute has been testing this compound on rats for several years. This process takes quite a while, as always in medical tests. We look forward to the day in the future when cancer patients will be treated with beekeeping products, but athletes can already use these substances to enhance their performance and set records."...

Wednesday, January 10, 2018

Brazilian Red Propolis: Legitimate Name of the Plant Resin Source

Abstract - MOJ Food Processing & Technology

Red propolis ranks as the second most produced Brazilian propolis type. Its main
chemical constituents are phenolic substances typical of the subfamily Faboideae of
the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family, such as neoflavanoids, chalcones, flavanones and
isoflavonoids, among them isoflavones (e.g. biochanin a, daidzein) and pterocarpans
(e.g. medicarpin).

The plant source of Brazilian red propolis has been referred to as
Dalbergia ecastophyllum throughout the propolis literature. Such scientific binomial,
however, is a synonym of the legitimate name Dalbergia ecastaphyllum.

Tuesday, January 09, 2018

Propolis Component Protects Against Brain Injury

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects against photothrombotic cortical ischemic injury in mice

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018 Jan;22(1):101-110

In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis purified from honeybee hives, on photothrombotic cortical ischemic injury in mice. Permanent focal ischemia was achieved in the medial frontal and somatosensory cortices of anesthetized male C57BL/6 mice by irradiation of the skull with cold light laser in combination with systemic administration of rose bengal.

The animals were treated with CAPE (0.5-5 mg/kg, i.p.) twice 1 and 6 h after ischemic insult. CAPE significantly reduced the infarct size as well as the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, hypoxiainducible factor-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-1α, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in the cerebral cortex ipsilateral to the photothrombosis. Moreover, it induced an increase in heme oxygenase-1 immunoreactivity and interleukin-10 expression.

These results suggest that CAPE exerts a remarkable neuroprotective effect on ischemic brain injury via its anti-inflammatory properties, thereby providing a benefit to the therapy of cerebral infarction.