Monday, January 16, 2017

New Method for Determining Antibacterial Components in Manuka Honey

Novel assay of antibacterial components in manuka honey using lucigenin-chemiluminescence-HPLC

Anal Chim Acta. 2017 Feb 15;954:151-158

Five components (hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal, dihydroxyacetone, fructose and glucose) of New Zealand manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) were analyzed using lucigenin chemiluminescence high-performance liquid chromatography (lucigenin-CL-HPLC). We focused on active oxygen species produced from the components in order to easily detect these five components contained in manuka honey. H2O2 and O2- generated from these components were identified by lucigenin-CL and electron spin resonance (ESR), and the bactericidal effect of ROS was confirmed using E. coli. The previously reported assays for Manuka honey components have low specificities and require complicated preprocessing methods.

As our results, the detection and identification of these components were possible within 30 min in lucigenin-CL-HPLC system, without any special treatment. It is considered that lucigenin-CL-HPLC is useful for the quality control and the analysis of various honey.

Sunday, January 15, 2017

New Brazilian Propolis Studied

New propolis type from northeast Brazil: chemical composition, antioxidant activity and botanical origin

J Sci Food Agric. 2017 Jan 11


Propolis is a bee product with wide diversity of biological activity. It has complex composition, which is dependent on its botanical source. The present work aimed at determining the chemical profile, antioxidant activity and botanical origin of two samples of a propolis type from two locations of the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil).


The standard chemical characteristics of the RN propolis are similar or superior to the internationally marketed Brazilian green propolis. RN propolis from two locations have high antioxidant activity, corresponding to 10% (municipality of Afonso Bezerra) and 13% (municipality of Alto do Rodrigues) of quercetin activity by the DPPH method and to 15% (both locations) by the β-carotene discoloration method. HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analyses revealed that most constituents of the RN propolis are flavonoids, mainly flavonols and chalcones. HPLC-DAD analysis of ethanol extracts revealed a great similarity between the chemical profile of RN propolis and shoot apices of "jurema-preta" (Mimosa tenuiflora, Leguminosae, Mimosoideae).


"Jurema-preta" shoot apices are likely resin sources of RN propolis. The chemical characteristics and antioxidant property of RN propolis provide promising prospects for the introduction of this type of propolis into the apicultural market.

Saturday, January 14, 2017

Royal Jelly May Help Treat Obesity

Royal jelly ameliorates diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance by promoting brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in mice

Obesity Research & Clinical Practice

Available online 11 January 2017


Identification of thermogenic food ingredients is potentially a useful strategy for the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders. It has been reported that royal jelly (RJ) supplementation improves insulin sensitivity; however, its impacts on energy expenditure and adiposity remain elusive. We investigated anti-obesity effects of RJ supplementation and their relation to physical activity levels and thermogenic capacities of brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT).


C57BL/6J mice were fed under four different experimental conditions for 17 weeks: normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), HFD with 5% RJ, and HFD with 5% honey bee larva powder (BL). Spontaneous locomotor activity, hepatic triglyceride (TG) content, and blood parameters were examined. Gene and protein expressions of thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (COX-IV) in BAT and WAT were investigated by qPCR and Western blotting analysis, respectively.


Dietary RJ, but not BL, suppressed HFD-induced accumulations of WAT and hepatic TG without modifying food intake. Consistently, RJ improved hyperglycemia and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Although dietary RJ and BL unchanged locomotor activity, gene and protein expressions of UCP1 and COX-IV in BAT were increased in the RJ group compared to the other experimental groups. Neither the RJ nor BL treatment induced browning of WAT.


Our results indicate that dietary RJ ameliorates diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis by promoting metabolic thermogenesis in BAT in mice. RJ may be a novel promising food ingredient to combat obesity and metabolic disorders.

Friday, January 13, 2017

Green Propolis Displays Better Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities

Artepillin C and phenolic compounds responsible for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC


This study investigates the antimicrobial activity in Staphylococcus aureus isolates (MSSA – Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA – Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and antioxidant activity of green propolis, Baccharis dracunculifolia DC extracts and Artepillin C™.

Methods and Results

The amount of Artepillin C in different extracts was determined by HPLC analysis. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations 90 (MIC90) was determined using 40 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus inoculated in Müeller-Hinton agar culture medium containing the green-propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC extracts. PVEE (green propolis ethanolic extract) and BDEH (Baccharis dracunculifolia hexanic extract) showed the greatest antimicrobial activity with MIC90 values of 246.3 and 295.5 μg/mL, respectively. Green propolis ethanolic and hexanic extracts (PVEE and PVEH respectively) showed the greatest antioxidant activity assessed by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazylradical) with IC50 values of 13.09 and 95.86 μg/mL, respectively.


Green propolis ethanolic is displays better antimicrobial and antioxidant activities compared to other extracts. These activities may be related to the presence of Artepillin C in synergism with the other constituents of the extracts.

Significance and impact of the study

In this study, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of green propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC demonstrated in MRSA an MSSA clinical isolates indicated that they can be important tools to treat infections caused by these bacteria.

Thursday, January 12, 2017

Stingless Bee Propolis from South Sulawesi, Indonesia Suppresses Dental Pulp Inflammation

Interleukin-6 expression on inflamed rat dental pulp tissue after capped with Trigona sp. propolis from south Sulawesi, Indonesia 

Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences

Available online 28 December 2016

Background: Propolis is a natural product of plant resins collected by honeybees from various plant sources. It is used as a remedy in folk medicine since ancient times because of its several biological and pharmacological properties. Recently, propolis has been used by dentist to treat various oral diseases. It was always mentioned as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cytokines are proteins that provide communication between cells and play a critical role in a wide variety of processes. It released from cells in an inflammatory process that active, mediate or potential actions of other cells or tissues. When dental pulp has inflammation, several pro-inflammatory cytokines including Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was released by innate immune cells.

Objective: To analyse the expression of IL-6 on inflamed rat dental pulp tissue following application of propolis.

Material and methods: Trigona sp. propolis was obtained from Luwu Regency, south Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Flavonoid and non-flavonoid extracts were purified from propolis using thin layer chromatography. The study was applied on 80 male Sprague Dawley rats, 10–12 weeks of age, divided randomly and equally into 5 groups. Group I, as negative control group was not conducted any treatment. At group II, III, IV and V. A Class I cavity (Black Classification) were made on the occlusal surface of right maxillary first molar. The dental pulp was perforated using dental explorer and allowed in the oral environment for 1 h, after that, Ethanolic Extract Propolis (EEP) (Group II), Extract Flavonoid-Propolis (EFP) (Group III), Extract Non-Flavonoid Propolis (ENFP) (Group IV), or Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) (Group V) were applied on dental pulp. All cavities were then filled with Glass Ionomer Cement as permanent filling. The rats being sacrificed in 6 h, 2 days, 4 days and 7 days. Sample biopsy were obtained, IL-6 expression was detected by using immunohistochemistry method. Data was analyzed statistically using Freidman and Kruskal Wallis tests with significance level of P < 0.05.

Results: All agent showed IL-6 expression in inflamed rat dental pulp tissue, and this expression was decreased with the longer of observation time periods. EEP more stronger to decreased IL-6 expression on inflamed rat dental pulp tissue than other agent. There is significant difference (P < 0.05) of IL-6 expression between group I and other groups in 6 h and 2 days but not in 4 and 7 days time periods.

Conclusion: Trigona sp. propolis from south Sulawesi, Indonesia could suppressed the expression of IL-6 on inflamed rat dental pulp tissue.

Wednesday, January 11, 2017

International Apitherapy Symposium in Slovenia, May 26-28, 2017

You find more details at the official website.


Linhartova 49A, 1000 Slovenia, President: Aleš Mižigoj, phone.: +386 1 475 75 00, Mobile: +386 41 621 894, e-mail:

Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Egyptian Propolis Protects Liver from Damage by Toxins

Effect of the Egyptian propolis on the hepatic antioxidant defense and pro-apoptotic p53 and anti-apoptotic bcl2 expressions in aflatoxin B1 treated male mice

Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Jan 4;87:247-255

Aflatoxins are potent hepatotoxic due to their role in producing reactive oxygen species and consequently peroxidative damage. Propolis is a honey bee product known for its antioxidant capacity. The aim of this study was to verify the antioxidant effect of the Egyptian propolis extract (EPE) against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Forty eight male mice were divided: first, second and third groups were used as control receiving saline, olive oil and EPE respectively, fourth was AFB1 group, fifth and sixth received EPE post or pre AFB1 treatment, respectively. EPE was given as (0.2mg/kg) 3 times a week. AFB1 was given as a single dose (0.25μg/kg).

After 2 weeks, the mice were scarified and biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations were assessed. EPE has a high content of total phenolics and alkaloids. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) value for DPPH radical scavenging was 1353.8μg/mL. Pretreatment with EPE improved AFB1-induced hepatotoxicity represented in lowering alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation and pro-apoptotic p53 expression to 33.48±1.98 IU/ml, 53.00±2.37 IU/ml, 123.50±2.02 IU/ml, 76.50±2.66mg/dl, 54.00±3.03mg/dl, 2.22±0.14 nmol/g and 4.31±2.1 cells/field and raising the reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase and anti-apoptotic bcl2 expression to 3.37±1.65 nmol/g, 4.92±0.25 nmol/g, 57±0.91UI/g and 39.7±5.9 cells/field which all had non-significant differences with the control, respectively.

In conclusion, EPE can attenuate aflatoxin B1-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

Monday, January 09, 2017

Honey and Wound Healing: An Update

Am J Clin Dermatol. 2017 Jan 6

For centuries, honey has been utilized for wound healing purposes. In recent times, this specific topic has become a field of interest, possibly due to the advent of antibiotic resistance in microbial pathogens. With constant technological advancement, the information regarding honey's mechanisms of action on wound healing has accumulated at a rapid pace. Similarly, clinical studies comparing honey with traditional wound care therapies are steadily emerging.

As a follow-up to a previous review published in the journal in 2011, the current review article outlines publications regarding honey and wound healing that have been published between June 2010 and August 2016. Here we describe the most recent evidence regarding multiple types of honey and their mechanisms of action as antimicrobial agents, immunologic modulators, and physiologic mediators. In addition, outcomes of clinical studies involving a multitude of cutaneous wounds are also examined.

Sunday, January 08, 2017

Honey Helps Treat Mouth Ulcers

Evaluation of Honey as a Topical Therapy for Intraoral Wound Healing in Rats

Wounds. 2016 Dec 29


Honey is one of the oldest known medicines. Its medical and therapeutic importance has been recently rediscovered. Honey is an effective treatment for infected wounds and ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey as a topical therapy for intraoral wound healing in rats.


Thirty-two male rats were divided into experimental and control groups (consisting of 16 rats, 4 animals in each group). A 2-mm mucosal defect was made to the depth of the periosteum using punch biopsy. Honey was applied to the wound every day, and the ulcer size was measured daily. On days 2, 4, 6, and 8, four rats were euthanized from each group (experimental and control groups), and tissues were histopathologically evaluated. Healing processes were studied as follows: the size of ulcer, inflammatory response, reepithelialization, and granulation tissue formation.


The mean rank of wound size was significantly reduced in the honey group (2.50), as compared to the control group (6.50). Reepithelialization and granulation tissue formation mean rank were significantly higher in the honey group (6.50) than in the control group (2.50). Inflammation mean rank was statistically lower in the honey group (2.63) compared with the control group (6.38).


Honey was shown to have a beneficial effect on the healing of oral ulcers in rats in this model. Further research may shed light on the effects of honey on different types of ulcers in humans.

Saturday, January 07, 2017

German Apitherapy Congress in Passau March 26-28

Congress and Api-Expo: March 24-26

​Post-Congress Tour: in the afternoon of Sunday, March 26th.

Workshops for beginners and advanced practitioners: Monday and Tuesday, March 27-28.

One of the major topics this year, besides the medicinal beekeeping, the bee products quality and the pharmacological properties​ will be the wound management with all beehive products (honey, propolis, royal jelly, bee venom).

Also, we will have many other oral and poster presentations on the clinical applications of beehive products, including of the already famous beehive air.

If you or your best friends are interested to come to one of the best cities in the world, with a highly interesting history and a vibrant modern life (students from over 30 countries are studying in Passau), please let us know.

As we highly respect our speakers, this year too we will offer free of charge registration for all of them.

Please contact for more details.

Friday, January 06, 2017

Bee Venom Potential Key to HIV Cure

Bee venom may be the answer to defeating HIV

Lauren Santye, Assistant Editor
Publish Date: Tuesday, January 03, 2017

The toxin melittin, a peptide found in bee sting venom, could serve as a prophylactic against HIV when applied prior to sexual activity, according to a new study. This approach could potentially destroy HIV by creating holes in the envelope that surrounds the virus.

Although melittin can kill viruses, it is a cytolytic, which means it can destroy cells by increasing their permeability. Unfortunately, this negatively affects both the virus and important human cells, according to Itech Post.

The results of a study conducted by investigators from Washington University, found that by attaching melittin to complex nanoparticles, it allows the compound to selectively target HIV without affecting non-viral cells...

Thursday, January 05, 2017

Royal Jelly, Propolis, Bee Pollen Recommended to Boost Energy

Healthy living with TAU: Need a little pick-me-up

The Suburban, 1/2/2016

Deprived of sunshine and stressed by our cold winter months, weakened by infections, colds, Gastro, Sinusitis, and a lingering cough, you are beginning to feel terribly worn out. The end of winter is possibly the most taxing period of the year.

Recuperate and refuel your energy level

Trends come and go, new products constantly emerge on the market, yet only a handful has real staying power. These are bee products, notably royal jelly, propolis, pollen and ginseng.

Royal jelly

In the bee kingdom, the Queen bee has an approximate life span of 5 years, while the worker bees pass away at approximately 6 weeks! The answer to this mystery is a simple one. The Queen bee consumes royal jelly while the worker bees are deprived of this substance. Royal jelly is one of the best energy foods available.


Manufactured by bees to protect the beehive from microbial invasions, propolis acts as a natural antibiotic for humans. The antiseptic, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of propolis make it an ideal recovery tool for those individuals worn out from winter illnesses as well as a preventative option in order to avoid relapse.


Pollen harvested by bees doesn’t provoke allergies. It is rich in B vitamins and is a valuable nutrient for the nervous system...

Wednesday, January 04, 2017

Tualang Honey Protects Lungs, Brain From Effect of Toxin

Tualang Honey Protects the Rat Midbrain and Lung against Repeated Paraquat Exposure

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 4605782, 12 pages

Paraquat (PQ) is a dopaminergic neurotoxin and a well-known pneumotoxicant that exerts its toxic effect via oxidative stress-mediated cellular injuries.

This study investigated the protective effects of Tualang honey against PQ-induced toxicity in the midbrain and lungs of rats. The rats were orally treated with distilled water (2 mL/kg/day), Tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/day), or ubiquinol (0.2 g/kg/day) throughout the experimental period. Two weeks after the respective treatments, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline (1 mL/kg/week) or PQ (10 mg/kg/week) once per week for four consecutive weeks.

After four weekly exposures to PQ, the glutathione peroxidase activity and the number of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunopositive neurons in the midbrain were significantly decreased in animals from group PQ (). The lungs of animals from group PQ showed significantly decreased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase. Treatment with Tualang honey ameliorated the toxic effects observed in the midbrain and lungs.

The beneficial effects of Tualang honey were comparable to those of ubiquinol, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that treatment with Tualang honey may protect against PQ-induced toxicity in the rat midbrain and lung.

Tuesday, January 03, 2017

Propolis Helps Boost Hair Growth, Treat Balding

Preparation and evaluation of a hair wax containing propolis and Eruca sativa seed oil for hair growth

Adv Biomed Res. 2016 Nov 28;5:182


Hair growth as a key consumer objective has important role in the hair care products researches. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of a hair wax containing propolis, a resinous mixture produced by honeybees in Eruca sativa seed oil base on hair growth.


The hair wax was designed and formulated compared with marketed brand hair wax and evaluated for pharmaceutical parameters including pH, homogeneity, consistency, spread ability, in vitro drug release, and stability. After selection of the best formulation containing 10% ethanolic extract of propolis and 10% E. sativa seed oil, the hair growth potential was evaluated by application of 1 g hair wax daily on 4 cm2 area of dorsal side of Wistar rats and compared with controls and standard medication (1 ml of 2% minoxidil). After 30 days treatment, the length and weight of hairs and percentage of hair follicles in different phases of growth in skin biopsies were assessed.


The selected hair wax formulation was stable and easy to wash. The formulation significantly increased hair length on 10th, 20th, and 30th day compared control group (5.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.4, 11.4 ± 0.6 vs. 5.8 ± 0.4, and 17.5 ± 0.5 vs. 12.7 ± 0.4 mm, respectively) and also the weight of newly grown hairs on 30th day (0.056 ± 0.006 vs. 0.043 ± 0.005). It improved hair follicles percentages in anagen phase without any sensitivity reaction.


The results of this study suggest that the formulated hair wax containing of propolis and E. sativa seed oil could have significant effect on promoting hair growth.

Monday, January 02, 2017

Royal Jelly Helps Lower Cholesterol

Hypocholesterolemic efficacy of royal jelly in healthy mild hypercholesterolemic adults

Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec;55(1):497-502


Royal jelly (RJ) has been reported for its health promoting factors such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering activities.


The present randomized, placebo-controlled study examines the hypolipidemic beneficial effect of RJ through evaluating anthropometric measurements, lipid profile and various hormone levels in mildly hypercholesterolemic participants.


Forty subjects with mild hypercholesterolemia (180-200 mg/dL) were randomly selected and divided into two groups as experimental or placebo, who requested to intake nine capsules (350 mg/capsule) of RJ or placebo/day, respectively, for three months with one month of follow-up without any supplementation.


No significant changes were noted in any of the anthropometric parameters like body weight, waist and body fat. The serum total cholesterol (TC; 207.05-183.15 mg/dL) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c; 126.44-120.31 mg/dL) levels were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) after administration of RJ. However, triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels were not considerably altered. Moreover, three months of RJ consumption significantly ameliorated (p < 0.05) the concentration of sex hormones like dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S; 1788.09-1992.31 ng/mL). Also, intake of RJ did not elicit any hepatic or renal damage.


Intervention with RJ for three months considerably lowered the TC and LDL-c levels through improving the levels of DHEA-S and thus alleviates the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).